C++ Programming Tutorial

 
 
 

Graphics Programming

Quadratic Surfaces

Draw a Sphere using Ellipses Draw a Sphere using Parametric Equations Draw an Ellipsoid using Parametric Equations

Character Generation

Urdu Alphabets using Stroke Method Urdu Alphabets using Matrix Method

Arc

Circular Arc using Trigo. Method Elliptical Arc using Trigo. Method

General Programs

C-Curve of nth order K-Curve of nth order Cubic Bezier Curve Bezier Curve of nth degree Scanfill algorithm Boundary Fill - 8 Connected Point Flood fill algorithm Rotate About Origin Rotate about reference point Scaling about origin Scaling about reference point Polyline translation Reflection in x axis Reflection in y Axis Reflection on any line Midpoint Circle Drawing Bresenhams Line Algorithm (BLA) Generate a pattern Draw a Chess Board Draw a Luddo Board Deterministic Finite Automation for identifier Kurskals algo - Minimum Cost Spanning Tree

Windows Programs

Checkbox like windows Simple windows & buttons Moving message box like windows Text box Graphical Rep. of tower of hanoi Graphical menu - operate it using arrow keys Text animation

Line

Line using Parametric equations Line-Cartesian Slope-Intercept Equation simple imp Line using Cartesian Slope-Intercept Equation Line - BLA - slopes negative and greater than 1 Line - BLA - slopes negative and less than 1 Line - BLA - slopes positive and greater than 1 Line - BLA - slopes positive and less than 1 DDA line drawing algorithm Bresenham line drawing algorithm Cohen sutherland Line clipping algo.

Line Styles

Different kinds of Dashed Lines Different kinds of Thick Lines

Polygons

Draw a Polygon Draw a Triangle Draw a Rectangle Sutherland-Hodgeman Polygon Clipping Algo

Circle

Circle using Trigo. Method Circle using Polynomial Method Circle using Bresenhams Circle algo. Circle using MidPoint Circle algo.

Ellipse

Ellipse using Polynomial Method Ellipse using Trigo. Method Ellipse using MidPoint Ellipse algo.

2D Transformations

Translation Transformation Scaling Transformation Scaling Trans along a Fixed Point Scaling Trans along Arbitrary Direction Rotation Transformation Rotation Trans along a Pivot Point Reflection tran of x-axix, y-axis and w.r.t origin Reflection tran of line y=x and y=-x X-Direction Shear Transformation Y-Direction Shear Transformation

2D Viewing - Clipping

Window-to-Viewport Coordinate Tran Point Clipping Algorithm Cohen-Sutherland Line Clipping Algo Cohen-Sutherland MidPoint Subdivision Line Nicol Lee Nicol algo. for Line Clipping Liang-Barsky Line Clipping Algo Window-to-Viewport Transformaton None-or-All String Clipping Strategy None-or-All Character Clipping Strategy

3D Object Representations

3D object using Polygon-Mesh Rep. 3D object - Translational Sweep Representatiom 3D object - Rotational Sweep Rep.

3D Transformations

3D Rotation Trans along x-axis 3D Rotation Trans along y-axis 3D Rotation Trans along z-axis 3D Reflection Trans along xy-plane 3D Reflection Trans along yz-plane 3D Reflection Trans along zx-plane 3D Shearing Trans along x-axis 3D Shearing Trans along y-axis 3D Shearing Trans along z-axis

Bezier Curves - Surfaces

3D Cubic Bezier Curve 3D Bezier Curve of nth degree 3D Piece-Wise Bezier Curve of nth degree 3D Bezier Surface for MxN control points

Projection

3D objects - Standard Perspective Projection 3D obj - Arbitrary Plane and Center of Projection 3D objects using General Perspective Projection 3D obj-Orthographics Proje Parallel onto xy-plane 3D obj-Cavalier Oblique Parallel prj-xy-plane 3D obj-Cabinet Oblique Parallel prj - xy-plane

Fill Algorithm or Area Filling

Geometric shapes using Boundary Geometric shapes - Boundary - Linked List Geometric shapes using Flood Geometric shapes - Flood - Linked-List Polygon using Scan Line Polygon Rectangle using Scan-Line Rectangle Circle using Scan-Line Circle Circle - Scan-Line Circle - Polar Coordinates
 
 
 # include <iostream.h>
 # include <graphics.h>
 # include    <conio.h>
 # include     <math.h>

 void show_screen( );

 void apply_x_direction_shear(const int,int [],const float);
 void multiply_matrices(const float[3],const float[3][3],float[3]);

 void Polygon(const int,const int []);
 void Line(const int,const int,const int,const int);


 int main( )
    {
       int driver=VGA;
       int mode=VGAHI;

       initgraph(&driver,&mode,\"..\\\\Bgi\");

       show_screen( );

       int polygon_points[10]={ 220,190, 420,190, 420,290, 220,290, 220,190 };

       setcolor(15);
     Polygon(5,polygon_points);

       setcolor(15);
       settextstyle(0,0,1);
     outtextxy(50,415,\"*** Use Up and Down Arrow Keys to apply Y-Direction Shear.\");

       int key_code_1=0;
       int key_code_2=0;

       char Key_1=NULL;
       char Key_2=NULL;

       do
      {
         Key_1=NULL;
         Key_2=NULL;
         key_code_1=0;
         key_code_2=0;

         Key_1=getch( );
         key_code_1=int(Key_1);

         if(key_code_1==0)
        {
           Key_2=getch( );
           key_code_2=int(Key_2);
        }

         if(key_code_1==27)
        break;

         else if(key_code_1==0)
        {
           if(key_code_2==72)
              {
             setfillstyle(1,0);
               bar(40,70,600,410);

             apply_x_direction_shear(5,polygon_points,-0.1);

             setcolor(12);
               Polygon(5,polygon_points);
              }

           else if(key_code_2==80)
              {
             setfillstyle(1,0);
               bar(40,70,600,410);

             apply_x_direction_shear(5,polygon_points,0.1);

             setcolor(10);
               Polygon(5,polygon_points);
              }
        }
      }
       while(1);

       return 0;
    }



 //---------------------  apply_x_direction_shear( )  --------------------//


 void apply_x_direction_shear(const int n,int coordinates[],const float Sh_y)
    {
       for(int count=0;count<n;count++)
      {
         float matrix_a[3]={coordinates[(count*2)],
                         coordinates[((count*2)+1)],1};
         float matrix_b[3][3]={ {1,Sh_y,0} , {0,1,0} ,{ 0,0,1} };
         float matrix_c[3]={0};

         multiply_matrices(matrix_a,matrix_b,matrix_c);

         coordinates[(count*2)]=(matrix_c[0]+0.5);
         coordinates[((count*2)+1)]=(matrix_c[1]+0.5);
      }
    }

 /************************************************************************/
 //----------------------  multiply_matrices( )  ------------------------//
 /************************************************************************/

 void multiply_matrices(const float matrix_1[3],
                  const float matrix_2[3][3],float matrix_3[3])
    {
       for(int count_1=0;count_1<3;count_1++)
      {
         for(int count_2=0;count_2<3;count_2++)
        matrix_3[count_1]+=
               (matrix_1[count_2]*matrix_2[count_2][count_1]);
      }
    }


 //-----------------------------  Polygon( )  ----------------------------//


 void Polygon(const int n,const int coordinates[])
    {
       if(n>=2)
      {
         Line(coordinates[0],coordinates[1],
                         coordinates[2],coordinates[3]);

         for(int count=1;count<(n-1);count++)
        Line(coordinates[(count*2)],coordinates[((count*2)+1)],
                        coordinates[((count+1)*2)],
                        coordinates[(((count+1)*2)+1)]);
      }
    }


 //-------------------------------  Line( )  -----------------------------//


 void Line(const int x_1,const int y_1,const int x_2,const int y_2)
    {
       int color=getcolor( );

       int x1=x_1;
       int y1=y_1;

       int x2=x_2;
       int y2=y_2;

       if(x_1>x_2)
      {
         x1=x_2;
         y1=y_2;

         x2=x_1;
         y2=y_1;
      }

       int dx=abs(x2-x1);
       int dy=abs(y2-y1);
       int inc_dec=((y2>=y1)?1:-1);

       if(dx>dy)
      {
         int two_dy=(2*dy);
         int two_dy_dx=(2*(dy-dx));
         int p=((2*dy)-dx);

         int x=x1;
         int y=y1;

         putpixel(x,y,color);

         while(x<x2)
        {
           x++;

           if(p<0)
              p+=two_dy;

           else
              {
             y+=inc_dec;
             p+=two_dy_dx;
              }

           putpixel(x,y,color);
        }
      }

       else
      {
         int two_dx=(2*dx);
         int two_dx_dy=(2*(dx-dy));
         int p=((2*dx)-dy);

         int x=x1;
         int y=y1;

         putpixel(x,y,color);

         while(y!=y2)
        {
           y+=inc_dec;

           if(p<0)
              p+=two_dx;

           else
              {
             x++;
             p+=two_dx_dy;
              }

           putpixel(x,y,color);
        }
      }
    }


 //--------------------------  show_screen( )  ---------------------------//


 void show_screen( )
    {
       setfillstyle(1,1);
     bar(184,26,460,38);

       settextstyle(0,0,1);
     setcolor(15);
       outtextxy(5,5,\"******************************************************************************\");
       outtextxy(5,17,\"*-**************************************************************************-*\");
       outtextxy(5,29,\"*--------------------                                     -------------------*\");
       outtextxy(5,41,\"*-**************************************************************************-*\");
       outtextxy(5,53,\"*-**************************************************************************-*\");

     setcolor(11);
       outtextxy(194,29,\"Y-Direction Shear Transformation\");

     setcolor(15);

       for(int count=0;count<=30;count++)
          outtextxy(5,(65+(count*12)),\"*-*                                                                        *-*\");

       outtextxy(5,438,\"*-**************************************************************************-*\");
       outtextxy(5,450,\"*-------------------------                          -------------------------*\");
       outtextxy(5,462,\"******************************************************************************\");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(229,450,\"Press any Key to exit.\");
    }

    Related Post:
  1. Program to read 2D array and display it row by row and its sum

  2. Program to estimate the Differential value of a given function using Runge-Kutta Methods

  3. Program that creats a 3D solid object using Translational Sweep Representatiom Method

  4. Program that computes and display the sum of first ten integers. (using for loop)

  5. Program to draw a circle using Trigonometric Method

  6. Program of Deterministic Finite Automation (DFA) for identifier, real number with optional Integer and Fractional Part

  7. Program to find whether a year is a leap year or not

  8. Program to illusrate data conversion b/w built-in data types and user defined data types(in char)

  9. Program to addition of two polynomial

  10. Program that prints odd numbers form 0 to 50 (Using for Loop)

  11. Program to illustrate the difference among public, protected and private inheritance

  12. Program to show the projection of 3D objects using Orthographics Parallel Projection w.r.t. xy-plane and along vector v

  13. Program to illustrate pointers and an array of structure

  14. Program to estimate value of First Derivative of the function at the given points from the given data using Backward Difference Formula , Forward diff

  15. Program that defines template of vector class that provides modify and multiplication facility

  16. Program for Operator Overloading

  17. Program that provides an example of friend function of a class

  18. Program that takes short date from a user and displays long date

  19. Program to display matrix table of n x m

  20. Program to illustrate the use of call-by-refrence method using pointers

 
 
Didn't find what you were looking for? Find more on Program to illustrate the implementation of Y-Direction Shear Transformation